“The Paper Menagerie” by Ken Liu: A short review




Ken Liu’s “The Paper Menagerie” is a moving coming-of-age story that explores cultural identity, assimilation, and the complexities of parent-child relationships. The narrative is told in a fragmented yet effective storytelling technique, using episodes and vignettes to create a powerful impact. This analysis will explore the story’s themes, characters, and literary styles.


In “The Paper Menagerie” by Ken Liu, the main characters are:

Jack: The protagonist and narrator of the story. He is a Chinese-American who struggles with his cultural identity and has a complex relationship with his mother. As he grows older, he distances himself from his Chinese heritage to fit into American society.

Mom: Jack’s mother, who is from China. She came to America as a mail-order bride and had difficulty assimilating into American culture. She has a unique talent for making origami animals that come to life, symbolizing her emotional and cultural connection with Jack.

Dad: Jack’s father, an American man who married Mom through a catalog service. While he is kind and gentle, he is somewhat disconnected from the cultural struggles that his wife and son face.

These characters are central to the story’s exploration of cultural identity, assimilation, and the complexities of love and family relationships. I sympathized most with Mom, the mother. Torn between two cultures, she struggled to find her place in America while maintaining her Chinese heritage. Her language barrier, her role as a mail-order bride, and her yearning to connect with her son made her a profoundly relatable character.

Themes and Motifs

  • Cultural Identity: The story explores the tension between Jack’s American upbringing and Chinese heritage.
  • Assimilation/Discrimination: The mother’s struggle to fit into American society and Jack’s desire to be “fully American” are central to the story.
  • Alienation: Both characters feel isolated due to their cultural backgrounds.
  • Power of Love/Imagination: The paper menagerie symbolizes the imaginative and emotional bond between mother and son.
  • Acceptance: Jack’s eventual acceptance of his heritage and understanding of his mother.
  • Striking Language and Imagery: The use of the Chinese character for love (“愛”) and its explanation provide a powerful image that encapsulates the story’s emotional core. The paper menagerie, particularly the tiger (Lao Hu), is a recurring motif symbolizing Jack’s inner turmoil and cultural duality.

Structure and Form

The story’s short scenes and chapters show how the characters’ cultural identity is broken apart. The story’s timeline jumps around, but it shows how the issues the characters face last for a long time. The ending gives the reader a sense of closure, but it also leaves them wondering what will happen next.

Understanding the story as a coming-of-age narrative helps us trace Jack’s psychological growth. His journey from rejecting his heritage to embracing it forms the crux of the story.

The paper animals come alive, adding a magical touch to the story. They stand for the living culture and deep feelings that Jack’s mother gives him.

In conclusion.

“The Paper Menagerie” is a compelling narrative that tackles complex themes like cultural identity, assimilation, and the power of love and imagination. Its strengths are its well-developed characters, thematic depth, and emotionally resonant storytelling. It serves as a mirror reflecting the societal attitudes towards cultural identity and assimilation, making it not just a personal story but a commentary on more significant social issues.

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