Key Points from “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind” by Yuval Noah Harari




“Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind” is a book by historian Yuval Noah Harari. The book was first published in Hebrew in 2011 and later translated into English in 2014. It has since been translated into many other languages.

The book presents a broad look at the history of humankind, from the emergence of Homo sapiens in Africa to the present day. In this article, we would like to present the main points discussed in the book.

1. Evolution of Homo sapiens

n “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind,”” Yuval Noah Harari presents a captivating narrative on the evolution of Homo sapiens from their roots as primates to becoming the dominant species on Earth. Here’s a breakdown of key points regarding the development of Homo sapiens and the distinctive traits that set them apart, according to Harari:

Evolutionary Journey

Ancestral Split

Harari begins by tracing the evolutionary split between humans and chimpanzees, our closest genetic relatives, around 6 million years ago. This divergence set the stage for the development of unique human traits.

Early Humans

The journey continued through various human species, including Homo neanderthalensis and Homo erectus, highlighting the diversity within the Homo genus.
Cognitive Revolution (circa 70,000 years ago):

Harari marks the Cognitive Revolution as a pivotal point where Homo sapiens began to stand apart due to their newfound cognitive abilities.

Distinctive Traits

Language and Communication

Harari emphasizes the role of language as a cornerstone of Homo sapiens’ evolution. It’s not just about simple communication but the ability to convey abstract concepts, tell stories, and share information about the unseen or the future.
Shared Myths and Collective Imagination:

A defining trait of Homo sapiens is the ability to create and believe in shared myths. This collective imagination allows large groups of individuals to cooperate and work towards common goals, a unique human characteristic.

Social Cooperation

The capacity for large-scale, flexible cooperation with many individuals, including strangers, is a distinct human trait. This ability has enabled the creation of complex social structures, from tribes to nations and international organizations.
Technological Innovation:

The continuous drive for technological innovation, aided by the ability to learn cumulatively from past generations, has propelled Homo sapiens to dominance.

Manipulation of Environment

Homo sapiens have an unparalleled ability to manipulate their environment, dramatically altering ecosystems to meet their needs.

Harari’s Presentation

Engaging Narrative

Harari unfolds the human evolution narrative in an engaging, accessible manner, making complex evolutionary concepts understandable to a broad audience.
Interdisciplinary Approach:

He employs an interdisciplinary approach, intertwining anthropology, biology, history, and sociology to provide a holistic view of human evolution.

Reflective Inquiry

Harari also prompts reflective inquiry into the human condition and the ethical considerations entwined with our evolutionary journey.


Through vivid storytelling and clear, concise explanations, Harari helps the reader visualize the evolutionary milestones that have led to our current state.
This examination of human evolution through the lens of “Sapiens” sheds light on the intricacies of our journey and the distinctive traits that have enabled Homo sapiens to shape the world around them.

2. The Cognitive Revolution

In “Sapiens,” Yuval Noah Harari posits the Cognitive Revolution as a monumental phase in human history around 70,000 years ago. This Revolution significantly distinguished Homo sapiens from other human species and animals. Here’s an exploration of the Cognitive Revolution with a focus on the creation and belief in shared myths:

Language Evolution

Harari suggests that the Cognitive Revolution marked the emergence of a more sophisticated language among Homo sapiens, which enabled them to communicate complex ideas, share stories, and discuss abstract concepts.
Shared Myths and Collective Imagination:

The ability to conceive and communicate about entities and events that are not present or real allowed the creation of shared myths. These shared tales and collective imagination are central to the organization and development of early human societies.

Implications of Shared Myths

Social Cohesion

Shared myths fostered social cohesion by creating a common identity and shared values within a community. They helped in forming tribes and, later, more complex social structures.

Cooperation and Organization

With shared myths, large groups of individuals could cooperate towards common goals, whether it was hunting, defending against predators, or, later on, building settlements.

Law and Order

Shared myths laid the foundation for societal norms, laws, and religious practices, establishing order within growing communities.

Cultural Evolution

The ability to create and share myths allowed cultural evolution, fostering the development of religions, ideologies, and social hierarchies.

Economic Systems

Harari explains that shared myths were crucial in developing economic systems. For example, trade relies on shared beliefs in the value of goods and currency.

Political Structures

Political structures and authorities often derived their power from shared myths, whether divine right, royal blood, or, later on, ideologies like democracy and nationalism.
Conflict and Alliance:

Shared myths also played a role in conflicts and alliances. They could unite groups against a common enemy or foster partnerships between communities.

Harari’s Discussion

Critical Analysis

Harari critically analyzes the double-edged nature of shared myths. While they enabled large-scale, organized societies, they also led to social hierarchies, discrimination, and often, conflict.


He discusses the interconnectedness of the Cognitive Revolution with subsequent revolutions like the Agricultural and Scientific Revolutions, showing a progression in the complexity and impact of shared myths.
Reflection on Modern Society:

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Harari also reflects on how the remnants of the Cognitive Revolution continue to shape modern society through our reliance on shared myths and collective narratives.

3. The Agricultural Revolution

Harari vividly depicts the Agricultural Revolution and its sweeping impact on human societies. The transition from hunter-gatherer lifestyles to agricultural ones around 10,000 BC marked a significant pivot in human history. Here’s an examination of the impact of the Agricultural Revolution as discussed in “Sapiens”:

Social Structures

Settlement and Population Growth

The Agricultural Revolution allowed humans to settle in one place, establishing villages and, eventually, cities. This sedentary lifestyle facilitated population growth as food production could support more prominent communities.
Social Hierarchies and Specialization:

With agricultural societies came social hierarchies and job specialization. People took on roles as farmers, artisans, priests, and rulers, establishing social classes.
Formation of Complex Institutions:

Establishing permanent settlements facilitated the development of complex social institutions like organized religion, governance systems, and legal frameworks.

Surplus and Trade

The ability to produce surplus food was a cornerstone of the Agricultural Revolution. Surpluses enabled trade between different communities, fostering economic interaction and the beginnings of market economies.

Property Ownership

The concept of private property and land ownership emerged, creating economic disparities and the basis for inheritance, a new social and financial picture.
Technological Innovations:

Agriculture spurred technological innovations like the plow, irrigation systems, and the wheel, further propelling economic growth and societal complexity.

Human Interaction with the Environment:

Environmental Manipulation

Humans began to significantly alter their environment through farming, leading to deforestation, soil degradation, and the domestication of plants and animals.

Dependency on Few Crops

Agricultural societies became heavily dependent on a small variety of crops, which made them vulnerable to droughts, floods, and pests.

Animal Domestication

The domestication of animals provided labor and food and led to new diseases as humans came into close contact with animals.

Harari’s Perspective:

Luxury Trap

Harari discusses the notion of the “Luxury Trap,” where the Agricultural Revolution, while providing surplus food and settlement, also led to longer working hours, social hierarchies, and often a less nutritious diet compared to the diverse foods consumed by hunter-gatherers.

Continued Evolution

He also explores how the Agricultural Revolution set the stage for further technological and social advancements, shaping the trajectory of human civilization.

Reflective Questioning

Harari prompts readers to reflect on the long-term implications of the Agricultural Revolution, not only on human society but on the planet as a whole.
The Agricultural Revolution, as depicted in “Sapiens,” underscores a critical period of human adaptation and societal restructuring, which laid the foundations for modern civilizations. Through agriculture, humans drastically altered their social, economic, and environmental landscapes, setting a precedent for today’s complex societies.

4. the unification of humankind through shared myths and ideologies

Yuval Noah Harari’s exploration of the unification of humankind through shared myths and ideologies is a profound narrative thread in “Sapiens.” He argues that creating and believing in shared tales has been pivotal in unifying large groups of humans, transcending the natural kin-based affiliations seen in other species. Here’s a discussion of Harari’s perspective on this unification, focusing on religions, nations, and economic systems:


Common Belief Systems

Harari explains that religions provide standard belief systems that bind people together, offering shared moral frameworks and existential explanations that foster community and belonging.

Organizational Structures

Religions also bring organizational structures, rituals, and traditions that help build and maintain social order, enabling large-scale coordination.
Transcending Local Boundaries:

Major world religions have often transcended local and ethnic boundaries, creating vast communities of believers across different regions.


Shared National Identity

Harari discusses the emergence of nations and national identities as powerful unifying forces. Countries create shared identities based on common history, language, and culture, even when such commonalities are partly mythologized.

Legal and Political Systems

The concept of a nation-state brings legal and political systems that further unify individuals under shared governance and law.

National Myths

Harari also touches on national myths that contribute to the cohesion and the shared identity that fuels patriotism and national pride.

Economic Systems

Market Economies

Economic systems, especially market economies, foster interactions and dependencies among individuals and nations. Harari mentions how the belief in the value of money is a shared myth that enables complex economic interactions.

Global Trade

The global trade networks and economic interdependence foster a form of unification as countries and individuals become part of a worldwide financial system.
Capitalism and Consumerism:

Harari also delves into how ideologies like capitalism and consumerism shape identities and create a shared global culture of consumption.

Implications of Collective Beliefs

Large-scale Cooperation

These shared myths and ideologies enable large-scale, often global, cooperation and coordination unique to Homo sapiens.


Conversely, differing ideologies and beliefs can also be sources of conflict and division within and between societies.

Global Challenges

Harari suggests that unification through shared myths may be a necessary framework for addressing global challenges that require collective action on an unprecedented scale.

Loss of Local Cultures

The rise of global religions, national identities, and economic systems can sometimes lead to the erosion of local cultures and traditions.

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Ethical Considerations

Harari also prompts readers to consider the ethical implications of these shared myths and ideologies, especially in how they shape power dynamics and societal values.
In “Sapiens,” Harari invites readers to reflect on the power and implications of the shared myths and ideologies that have united humankind into more extensive and more complex social structures, shaping the trajectory of human civilization over millennia. Through this lens, he offers a nuanced exploration of the collective beliefs that continue to shape human identity and the global community.

5. The Scientific Revolution

In “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind,” Yuval Noah Harari delineates the Scientific Revolution as a pivotal epoch in the annals of human history, commencing around the 16th century. This period witnessed a substantial shift from traditional, often dogmatic, ways of understanding the world to a method grounded in observation, experimentation, and reason. Here’s an exploration of how Harari connects the Scientific Revolution to the augmentation of human power and the evolution of modern civilization

Ignition of Curiosity

Admission of Ignorance

Harari posits that a fundamental catalyst of the Scientific Revolution was the collective admission of ignorance, which in turn sparked curiosity and a quest for new knowledge.

Empirical Method

Adopting empirical methods encouraged individuals to seek understanding through observation and experimentation, fostering a more accurate comprehension of natural phenomena.

Expansion of Human Power

Technological Innovations

The Scientific Revolution spurred technological advancements. Harari articulates that the symbiosis between science and technology engendered a cycle where scientific discoveries led to new technologies, facilitating further scientific exploration.

Exploitation of Natural Resources

Scientific insights enabled humans to exploit natural resources more efficiently, amplifying human power over the natural world.

Medical Advancements

The blossoming of medical science significantly reduced mortality rates and ameliorated human health, contributing to population growth and extended life spans.

Birth of Modern Civilization

Economic Growth

Harari discusses how the Scientific Revolution significantly contributed to economic growth and established a global economy by fostering technological and medical advancements.

Political Changes

The new knowledge and technologies birthed by the Scientific Revolution also brought about political changes, influencing ideologies and the organization of societies.

Educational Systems

The Revolution reshaped educational systems, with a greater emphasis on scientific subjects and cultivating a questioning mindset.

Global Exploration and Imperialism

Harari also links the Scientific Revolution to global exploration and imperialism, where the newfound capabilities facilitated European dominion over much of the world.

Harari’s Reflection

Skeptical Inquiry

Harari extols the virtues of skeptical inquiry ushered in by the Scientific Revolution as a cornerstone of human progress.

Ethical Dilemmas

Yet, he also prompts readers to reflect on the ethical dilemmas engendered by the augmented human power, particularly in exploitation and environmental degradation.
Ongoing Journey:

Harari underscores that the voyage of scientific inquiry is ongoing, continually reshaping our understanding of the world and our place within it.
Through “Sapiens,” Harari elucidates the monumental impact of the Scientific Revolution on human civilization, casting a light on how the fusion of scientific inquiry with technological innovation significantly expanded human power and, in the process, molded the contours of the modern world.

6. The transition from the Industrial to the Information Revolution

In “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind,” Yuval Noah Harari discusses the evolution of human society through different revolutions, each bringing monumental changes. The transition from the Industrial to the Information Revolution represents a significant leap in how humans interact with the world and each other. Here’s an examination of this transition as discussed in “Sapiens”:

Key Technological Advancements

Computing Technology

The advent of computers and the subsequent development of computing technology is a hallmark of the transition. Computers facilitated the processing and storage of vast amounts of information, significantly enhancing human capabilities in data analysis.

Internet and Connectivity

The emergence of the internet has brought about a new era of connectivity, allowing instant communication and access to information on an unprecedented scale.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

Advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning represent a significant stride, enabling machines to learn, adapt, and sometimes outperform human intelligence in specific tasks.


Harari also touches on the realm of biotechnology, where the fusion of information technology and biology is opening new frontiers in medicine, agriculture, and even the potential alteration of human biology.

Reshaping Human Society

Economic Transformation

The Information Revolution has catalyzed a shift towards knowledge-based economies, where information and data are paramount assets. This transition has also led to the rise of new economic powerhouses and the reorganization of labor markets.

Political Impact

The ability to access and disseminate information has brought about political changes, influencing public discourse, political mobilization, and state surveillance.

Educational Evolution

The demand for new skills and continuous learning reshapes educational systems, promoting lifelong learning to keep pace with rapidly evolving technologies.


Enhanced connectivity has fostered globalization, bringing about closer integration of economies, cultures, and political systems.

Impact on Individual Identities

Digital Identities

In the Information Age, individuals often have digital identities parallel to their physical identities. The online world offers new platforms for expression, socialization, and the formation of virtual communities.

Privacy Concerns

The accumulation and analysis of personal data raise privacy concerns, with individuals often trading privacy for convenience or connectivity.

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Information Overload

The deluge of information available can lead to information overload, affecting individuals’ ability to discern reliable from unreliable information.

Enhanced Autonomy and Empowerment

Access to information empowers individuals with knowledge, enhancing personal autonomy and decision-making.

Through “Sapiens,” Harari provides a compelling narrative of the human journey from the Industrial to the Information Revolution, elucidating how key technological advancements have reshaped societal structures and significantly impacted individual identities in an increasingly interconnected world.

7. The ethical dilemmas and future predictions presented

In “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind,” Yuval Noah Harari delves into the moral quandaries ushered in by technological advancements and casts a contemplative eye toward the future of humanity. Here’s a synthesis of Harari’s exploration of ethical dilemmas and his prognostications for the human journey ahead:

Ethical Dilemmas


Harari scrutinizes the ethical maze surrounding biotechnology, especially the potential to modify human beings genetically. This raises profound questions about humanity’s essence and scientific exploration’s moral boundaries.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

The rise of AI evokes ethical dilemmas regarding autonomy, privacy, and the potential obsolescence of specific jobs, affecting economic and social structures.
Data Privacy:

Harari ponders the ethical implications surrounding data privacy, surveillance, and the trade-off between security and individual privacy in an age of data abundance.

Environmental Impact

He also discusses humanity’s ethical responsibility towards the environment, especially in the face of industrial and technological advancements, often at the expense of environmental sustainability.

Future Predictions


Harari foresees a possible future where humans may transcend biological boundaries to become “gods” of sorts, with abilities to create and modify life, which he refers to as the rise of Homo Deus (the title of his subsequent book).

AI and Human Identity

He anticipates a world where AI could potentially reshape human identities, as machines might outperform humans in various tasks, leading to a reevaluation of human roles and self-worth.

Global Cooperation

Harari suggests that global challenges such as climate change and pandemics will necessitate unprecedented international cooperation, urging a move towards more global solidarity and shared narratives.

Continued Technological Innovation

He predicts that technological innovation will continue to accelerate, bringing about opportunities and challenges that will necessitate robust ethical frameworks and adaptive social systems.

Search for Meaning

Amidst the technological and scientific advancements, Harari posits that the quest for meaning and the human narrative will remain central, urging a reflective examination of collective values and individual purpose.

Through “Sapiens,” Harari offers a profound exploration of the ethical landscapes emerging from the crucible of technology and the anticipation of a future where the very fabric of human identity might be reconfigured. His narrative invites readers to engage in a thoughtful dialogue about the ethical principles and the collective histories that will guide humanity through uncharted future terrains.

8. Critiques or controversies surrounding Harari’s interpretations and narratives

In “Sapiens,” Yuval Noah Harari traverses the long path of human evolution and history, offering a unique record that has captured the attention of readers worldwide. However, like any narrative that attempts to encapsulate vast swathes of history and complex ideas, “Sapiens” has not been without its critiques. Here’s a discussion surrounding some of the criticisms and controversies that have emerged in response to Harari’s work in “Sapiens”:

Understanding of the Medieval World

Harari’s portrayal of the medieval world, particularly the medieval church, has been criticized for being inaccurate. It’s pointed out that Harari suggests premodern religion stifled curiosity and expansion of learning by asserting that all significant knowledge was already known. Critics argue that Harari’s timing of when this view changed is incorrect1.

Reductionist Argument

Some critics have noted that Harari employs a reductionist argument in “Sapiens,” which fails to justify human organisms’ complex, multi-layered nature. This reductionist view, critics say, simplifies complex human phenomena into overly simplistic terms2.

Academic Criticism

Despite its popularity, “Sapiens” has faced criticism from academics. It’s noted that while the book has the merit of disseminating critical ideas to a large audience, like the concept that humans are primarily animals (Homo sapiens), some academics seem to find faults in other areas of Harari’s narrative3.

General Criticism

Some critics have also shared their disdain for what they see as a sweeping saga of human history that might oversimplify or misrepresent certain aspects of our past.

Critique of Modernity

Harari has been critiqued for his perspective on modernity in “Sapiens.”” Critics highlight that Harari’s narrative tends to overlook the positive aspects of modernity and focuses more on the destructive implications of human progress2.

Bias and Speculation

Critics also argue that Harari’s work sometimes ventures into the realm of speculation and may reflect a certain degree of bias. They note that his interpretations and conclusions, especially regarding the future of humanity and ethical dilemmas posed by technological advancements, can be speculative and may not always be well-grounded in historical facts or consensus views.

These critiques are part of a larger discourse surrounding “Sapiens” and reflect the challenges inherent in crafting a narrative that spans the breadth of human history. Harari’s work stimulates discussion and debate, which is a testament to the engaging nature of his report, even as it draws criticism for its interpretations and conclusions.

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